26.5.2021 12:09
Effective Solution in the Fight against Root Cancer (Agrobacterium tumefaciens); NOGALL

Although the settlement of the disease is the root and root throat of the trees, it is also rarely seen in the above-ground parts close to the root.

What is Root Root Cancer?

Rooturus is a type of cancer that occurs by forming urlar in the root and root throats of many woody and herbaceous plant species. The formation of the disease is caused by 4 types of soil and plant pathogens. These pathogens are:

  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens,  
  • Agrobacterium rhizogenes  
  • Agrobacterium rubi
  • Agrobacterium vitis

The most common pathogen we encounter is the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

These bacteria, which are found in many agricultural lands and can survive under the ground for a very long time, spread very quickly to many orchards, starting from the sapling production facilities, causing the trees to dry out completely and die with the reductions in fruit attitude, quality and yield in agricultural production and then the proliferation of the pathogen in the root zone over time.
A tree root that has been exposed to root cancer
A tree root that has been exposed to root cancer

In Which Plant Groups Does Root Cancer Occur?

Root Cancer is one of the most common plant species of the disease:

  • stone-core fruits (such as peaches, cherries, cherries, plums)
  • hard-shelled fruits (such as walnuts, almonds)
  • soft-core fruits (such as apples, pears)
  • ties and ornamental plants (such as roses, chamomile, gerbera) come.

How Long Can Pathogenic Bacteria (Microbes) Cause Root Cancer Disease (Root Uru) Survive in the Soil?

Pathogenic Agrobacterium can live in the soil or on root tissues for years (40 years).

In general, it can be seen much more widely in soils with heavy clay or high water retention capacity and life expectancy may be longer in such soils. It has been observed in studies when the population of pathogenic bacteria decreases over time in rare land.

How Does Root Cancer Disease (Root Uru) Spread?

Pathogenic bacteria that cause Root Uru (cancer) disease can be spread very easily through precipitation, soil processing, tool equipment, soil and water. It can quickly be transmitted from one region to another through the movement of water in the soil or the dish roots of many plants (such as weeds, grass) in the field. The most important thing to remember is that pathogenic bacteria can live much more intensively and for a long time on plant residi and plant roots in the soil.

While there can be 500 pathogenic cells in an average of 1 g. soil, there are between 10,000 and 1 million pathogenic bacterial cells (plant roots have also been identified, where this number reaches 10 million) on 1 gr. of rooturus.

In order to prevent the spread of the disease, the destruction of diseased plant roots by removing them completely from the field is an issue that should be carefully emphasized as a very important cultural measure in the fight against rooturu (cancer).

As a matter of fact, Root Uru (Cancer) disease was within the scope of quarantine measures according to the technical instructions of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and was in the group of very dangerous and rapidly spreading diseases with a tolerance of 0. This meant that root cancer appeared even in 1 sapling, burning and destroying all saplings in the same field and closing the sapling production plant. In the periods after Nogall obtained a license in 2005, Root cancer was excluded from quarantine.

A close-up view of root cancer
A close-up view of root cancer

What is the ingress and damage of the bacteria that cause root cancer disease (root uru)?

The pathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens enters the plant from its injured tissues in the root region, causing the plant to become weak, decrease in yield and die prematurely.

Due to the way the pathogen bacteria is damaged, which is different from other bacteria, it is impossible to fight after entering the plant body.

A.tumefaciens Ti, which enters through sensitive injured plant tissues, transfers T-DNA from plasmidi to the plant genome. Ti Plasmidi contains genes that promote the production of oxin and cytoxin in the plant. Within 3-4 weeks after transfer, ti plasmidinin transforms normal plant cells thanks to this gene group on the chromosome and urlar occurs as a result of uncontrolled growth and division of plant cells.

Transfer of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA Ti plasmidinin to plant genome
Agrobacterium tumefaciens Transfer of T-DNA Ti placemidi to Plant Genome

These urns, which can be up to 10 cm in diameter, usually occur below the soil level, but from time to time it can be observed that they form in the body of the plant in parts close to the soil. Urlar, especially in the root area, is the most typical indicator of the disease, but it should not be confused with small urns caused by callus (piles of unorthordered cells) or a harmful insect (such as nematodes) caused by wounds within the plant. A. Although the urlar caused by tumefaciens develops very slowly, its development below 10 °C and above 35 °C is very slow.

Is there a chemical or biological drug that we can use to fight root cancer disease (root uru)?

Root Uru (cancer) is one of the most important problems of fruit growers in our country as well as in the whole world. Many years of work have been carried out in the fight against the disease and control a solution has not been found. Due to the way the pathogen bacteria is damaged, which is different from other pathogens, the harmful bacteria enters the plant body from injured tissues control there's no way. Disease control is only possible without entering the plant body of the pathogen bacteria. NOGALL The product, which is introduced to the market under its commercial name, is also known as the first and only biological preparation used in the fight against root cancer disease.

NOGALL What is it, when should it be used?

NOGALL Agrobacterium radiobacter, strain K1026 contains a beneficial bacterial culture purely in the form of wet dust wrapped in pede. This beneficial bacterial culture is the natural enemy of the pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens,which biologically controls the disease.

NOGALL it is a biological product that can only be used for protective purposes. Once the disease is in the plant, it cannot be used as a therapeutic.

Therefore, applications should be carried out before planting the plant on the ball.

Image of Nogall
Image of Nogall

NOGALL How Does Root Cancer (Root Uru) Affect the Fight Against It?

With Root Uru (Cancer) control NOGALL successfully used with different mechanisms of action. Form of action;

  • Colonized in a short period of time in the root zone, it protects the root like a vest.
  • For carbohydrates, amino acids, oxygen and other compounds in the root zone, it competes with soil pathogens, reducing their chances of survival.
  • It secretes antibiotics such as Agrocin 84, Agrocin 434 and ALS84, causing the direct death of the pathogenic bacteria that cause root cancer.

NOGALL Which plants are used successfully in the fight against root cancer?

In trials in different parts of the world, NOGALL is successfully used in plants such as stone-core fruits (peaches, cherries, cherries), hard-shelled fruits (such as walnuts, almonds), ornamental plants (roses, gerbera), blueberries, raspberries.

In soft-core (such as apples, pears) fruits, without the effect of antibiotics, only colonize the root area, limiting the chances of survival of the pathogenic bacteria. control Can. Therefore, root cancer-sensitive rootstocks should not be used, especially in soft cores, and cultural measures to be taken in the fight against the disease should be applied much more carefully.

Against root cancer in the ligaments caused by the harmful pathogen Agrobacterium vitis NOGALL is not effective and NOGALL is not recommended to use.  
Image of Nogall
Image of Nogall

NOGALL How should it be applied?

As with other biological and chemical drugs, making applications in the fight against pests without errors is the most important factor in terms of obtaining healthy results. The smallest mistake in applications, no matter how effective the product, reduces our chances of success. Therefore, the sensitivity required in applications should be shown at the highest level.

In general, NOGALL In simple words, their application is to soak seeds, crouches (mother) and seedlings for 1-2 minutes in the mixture of medicines that we will prepare before planting or planting, and then immediately sow or plant. However, when performing all these procedures, there are issues that we must pay attention to, from the preparation of the drug to the planting or planting stage. These:

  • NOGALL can only be used on seed crouches and seedlings before planting or planting. First of all, depending on the amount of seeds, crouches and seedlings that we will apply, how much NOGALL We need to determine that we need . It should not be used more or less than we need. 1 pack of 250 gr. for every 22 kg.seed for seed applications NOGALL it's enough. 1 package of 250 gr. depending on the use of the manufacturer and the size of the crouch (mother) NOGALL between 2,000 and 7,000 crouches can be sprayed. The producers who will build a new orchard are 1 pack of 250 gr. NOGALL 200-700 seedlings can be sprayed depending on the size and use of seedlings. In the light of this general information, the amount of NOGAL we need should be determined first.
  • When preparing the drug mixture, it should be ensured that the water to be used does not contain a chemical residue (including chlorine) and, if possible, ensure that the water is cold and of drinking water quality.
  • The container in which the drug will be prepared is clean; it should not be used for spraying and similar purposes. Depending on the size of the seedlings we will apply and the total number of seedlings, a basin, wide-mouthed bucket or canister with a depth of at least 30 cm. should be used.
  • It is useful to use sterile gloves during drug preparation, pruning and planting processes.
  • 250 gr. each NOGALL the total amount of water we need for the package is 12 lt. In order for the mixture we will prepare to be homogeneous, we must first enter the container with 2 lt. water should be put in and first NOGALL the entire package is 2 lt. it should be completely drained into the water and constantly mixed. Total 12 lt. water should be added gradually (such as preparing buttermilk) when mixing. When adding water, the interiors of the nylon packaging with bacterial culture should be thoroughly washed with water and all the medicine in the package should be transferred into the container. Care should be taken to constantly mix the drug even during application.
  • Before immersing the seedlings in the mixture of medicines we have prepared, the damaged parts of the root and root area of the sapling, such as fractures, dents, etc., should be cut and cleaned, and the soil and mud in the root area should be thoroughly washed away. Thus, the consumption of drugs to be applied to the planted sapling is reduced.
NOGALL The process of preparing
NOGALL The process of preparing
  • Tools and equipment such as pruning shears should be disinfected frequently when cutting and cleaning damaged parts of the root area of seedlings, such as fractures, dents, etc. It is useful to use sterile gloves when performing all these procedures.
  • If an alcohol-based product is also used for disinfection in the roots, the seedlings should be left for 2 hours after this application is carried out after the alcohol has flown NOGALL should be applied.
  • Seeds, crouches (mother) or seedlings should be kept in the prepared drug mixture for 1-2 minutes. It should be ensured that all parts of the saplings and crouches that will remain in the soil come into contact with the drug and get wet. During the immersion process, the mixing process should continue.
  • When removing the sapling from the medicated container, the flowing medicated liquid should remain in the same container. In this way, excessive drug loss is prevented.
  • Immediately after the application is carried out, planting or planting procedures should be carried out without waiting. If left for a very long time after application, it causes the drug to dry out on plant roots and seeds. If it is absolutely necessary to wait, the seedlings should be kept in a cool, sunlight-free, clean place for a maximum of 1 hour.
  • While the immersion process in the drug mixture we use continues, it is worth preparing a mixture of drugs again in case of a lot of contamination due to soil and mud from the plant roots over time.
  • As an alternative application, the prepared drug mixture can be put in a simple spray spraying tool, such as a back pump, and applied to the roots of seedlings in the form of spraying. In such applications, it should be ensured that the tool to dispose of the drug is not necessarily clean and pre-drug residue. This form of application can be sprayed in bulk before putting them in the cold storage or before burying them in the ground, if it is necessary to wait 2-4 days before planting seedlings. The same method of application can also be used to reduce the risk of transmission of the disease before the transportation of seedlings.
  • Applying the drug mixture to parts of the plant on the soil, such as leaves, stems, does not provide any benefit. Even if applied to these regions, over time, beneficial bacteria die due to sunlight.
  • Especially the producers who will establish a new orchard should show the necessary sensitivity to the choice of seedlings, they should necessarily prefer certified seedlings free from diseases and pests. Saplings infected with root cancer NOGALL with application control is not possible. Therefore, the companies where saplings are purchased are in the stage of sapling production NOGALL should be asked if it is using and, if possible NOGALL used seedlings should be preferred. Saplings at the production stage NOGALL greatly reduces the chance of developing root cancer.

NOGALL What Happens If We Prepare the Drug Mixture Using Water Above the Recommended Amount of Water?

250 gr. NOGALL the amount of water we will use for the packages is 12 lt. should definitely not be on top of. The amount of water that should be used for packages of 100 gr. is 4.8 lt. must not exceed . The recommended doses were determined as a result of many years of trial studies. As a result of the different dose trials conducted in our country under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the most successful results were obtained in the recommended doses. Adding excess water to the prepared mixture weakens the colonization of the beneficial bacterium on the plant roots, prevents it from secreting a sufficient amount of antibiotics and prevents the pathogenic bacteria from becoming ineffective.  

NOGALL Is It Harmful to Use In High Doses?

The mixture of drugs prepared in a much denser concentration has no harm to the plant, people, animals and the environment.

But it unnecessarily brings in too much expense. Therefore, there is no benefit to overuse or underuse outside of the recommended doses.

NOGALL How long can the prepared drug mixture be used with ?

Sapling plantings cannot be completed during the day and we have NOGALL If the drug mixture we have prepared with the drug is standing, we need to use it within 24 hours, provided that it is stored in a cool place. If used after 24 hours, it is not possible to achieve the successful results we expect?

After Planting Saplings in the Field NOGALL Is it feasible?

Nogall's recommended dose and method of application have been determined as a result of many years of studies. With the applications made to the root area after planting, the beneficial bacteria population can be increased and beneficial bacteria can be colonized in the root area.

However, there is no scientific study on whether such practices against root cancer will be successful. Such applications, which can currently be considered very risky in terms of obtaining results, are also not economical and are not recommended because they will lead to more drug use.

NOGALL The number of saplings I will apply is very small NOGALL Can We Make Fewer Drug Mixes Using Half of The Package and Use the Other Half Later?

250 g of perf has 0.03% beneficial bacteria Agrobacterium radiobacter, strain K1026. However, it is not homogeneous in perf. We need to instill the desired amount of bacteria in each plant root by constantly mixing the whole of the torfu in the water. If we use half the torfu, we won't know how much beneficial bacteria are in the mixture we're going to prepare. A large part of the beneficial bacteria can remain in the other half, or vice versa. If we absolutely need to divide it, it can be divided as a stirr after it is thoroughly mixed in water and should be used within 24 hours.  

Under What Conditions Should I Store Nogall?

NOGALL it is a beneficial bacterial culture and cannot be stored for a long time, such as chemicals. Storage time at room temperature from the date of production is a maximum of 6 months. If stored in the refrigerator at temperatures of 4-5 °C, this period will be extended up to 1 year. Expired NOGALL packages, please do not use them. Before use, it must be kept in a cool, sun-free place, stored in the same places as pesticides and fertilizers.  

By Cleaning The Urns On The Crouches (Root Cancer) NOGALL Does Its Application Yield Results in The Fight Against Disease?

An important issue to remember, NOGALL , the disease should be used before it enters the plant body and before urlar occurs in the root area.
Due to the different form of action of the harmful pathogen, there are no techniques or drugs that treat rooturu (cancer) disease after the disease enters the plant body. NOGALL it is a biological product used for protective purposes rather than treatment. Therefore, it is especially recommended to use it for protective purposes in disease-free crouches. After the disease has come out, the applications do not provide any benefit.

NOGALL How Long Does Beneficial Bacteria Survive in Applied Plant Roots?

NOGALL After its application, the beneficial bacterium Agrobacterium radiobacter, strain K1026 begins to colonize the root area within half an hour, and the number of beneficial bacteria is reached between 1-10 million per 1 gram of fresh roots. The amount of bacteria drops to 10,000-100,000 after 15-20 weeks.

The life expectancy of the beneficial bacteria on plant roots, weeds, grass and other plant roots is around 2 years on average.

If there is pathogenic bacteria A. tumefasiens in the soil, the beneficial bacteria may also have a chance of survival on grass, grass, herbs of plants.  

NOGALL Is there a problem with the use of chemical or biological other drugs or fertilizers in the root zone in applied plants?

Nogall is a culture of beneficial bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to be very careful especially in the use of fungicides from soil to the root area. If fungicides that should not be used are applied, the chance of survival in the root area of the beneficial bacteria is eliminated and success is not achieved in the fight against root cancer.

There is no harm in using insecticides and fertilizers. Please contact your dealer or company before using a chemical that you are hesitant to use. The fungicides that cannot be used and used from the soil after Nogall applications are listed below as NO and YES.

Fungicides that cannot be used and used from the soil after Nogall applications
Fungicides that cannot be used and used from the soil after Nogall applications